作物杂志, 2019, 35(6): 1-7 doi: 10.16035/j.issn.1001-7283.2019.06.001

专题综述

马铃薯连作障碍研究进展

侯乾, 王万兴, 李广存, 熊兴耀

中国农业科学院蔬菜花卉研究所/农业农村部薯类作物生物学与遗传育种重点实验室,100081,北京

Advances in the Research on Potato Continuous Cropping Obstacles

Hou Qian, Wang Wanxing, Li Guangcun, Xiong Xingyao

Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Root and Tuber Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China

通讯作者: 熊兴耀,教授,主要从事马铃薯栽培方面研究

收稿日期: 2019-05-5   修回日期: 2019-07-5   网络出版日期: 2019-12-15

基金资助: 现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金(CARS-09-P11)
国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200804)
中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(CAAS-ASTIP-IVFCAAS)

Received: 2019-05-5   Revised: 2019-07-5   Online: 2019-12-15

作者简介 About authors

侯乾,在读硕士研究生,主要从事马铃薯根际微生物方面研究 。

摘要

马铃薯是世界上四大粮食作物之一。在中国由于马铃薯大面积连年种植,造成连作障碍,导致块茎产量和品质下降等问题。连作障碍是土壤与作物相互作用的结果。本文综述了引起马铃薯连作障碍的主要原因,以及防治马铃薯连作障碍的主要方法。主要从连作马铃薯土壤理化性质劣变、化感自毒作用、土壤微生物群落结构变化等方面介绍了马铃薯连作障碍机制的研究进展;并从合理轮作、间套作,施用生物有机肥等农艺措施,化学熏蒸、物理消毒等土壤消毒措施方面介绍了马铃薯连作障碍防控的研究进展,旨在为研究马铃薯连作障碍机理和建立克服连作障碍的技术奠定基础。

关键词: 马铃薯 ; 连作障碍 ; 土壤理化性质 ; 根际微生物

Abstract

Potato is one of the four major food crops in the world. In China, due to the large-scale successive planting, the continuous cropping obstacles on potatoes are serious which lead to a series of problems such as yield and quality reduction. Continuous cropping obstacle is the result of interaction between soil and crops. This paper reviews the main causes of potato continuous cropping obstacles and the main methods to control potato continous cropping obstacles. The research progress of potato continuous cropping mechanism is introduced from the aspects of contiuous physical and chemical deterioration of potato soil, allelopathic self-toxicity and soil microbial community structure change. The prevention and control of potato continuous cropping soil, allelopathy and autotoxicity rhizosphere, microorganisms change and methods to overcome potato continuous cropping obstacles were also introduced. This paper aims at laying the foundation for studying the mechanism and establishing technology to overcome the continuous cropping obstacles.

Keywords: Potato ; Continuous cropping obstacle ; Soil physical and chemical properties ; Rhizosphere microorganism

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本文引用格式

侯乾, 王万兴, 李广存, 熊兴耀. 马铃薯连作障碍研究进展[J]. 作物杂志, 2019, 35(6): 1-7 doi:10.16035/j.issn.1001-7283.2019.06.001

Hou Qian, Wang Wanxing, Li Guangcun, Xiong Xingyao. Advances in the Research on Potato Continuous Cropping Obstacles[J]. Crops, 2019, 35(6): 1-7 doi:10.16035/j.issn.1001-7283.2019.06.001

马铃薯是中国主要的粮食作物之一,为人口增长提供了重要的食物来源[1]。目前,受耕地面积、订单农业、种植规模化、集约化及气候条件等因素的影响,马铃薯连作现象普遍存在。马铃薯连作会造成植株养分吸收困难、光合作用降低、地上部分生长发育不良、病虫害加重、产量和品质下降等问题[1,2,3]。连作障碍产生的原因十分复杂,主要由3个因素决定:土壤理化性质劣变、植物的化感自毒作用以及土壤微生物群落组成的变化[4,5]。本文探讨了马铃薯连作障碍的成因及克服马铃薯连作障碍的方法,旨在为研究马铃薯连作障碍机理及建立克服连作障碍的技术奠定基础。

1 连作障碍的成因

1.1 土壤理化性质劣变

长期连作,马铃薯会选择性吸收土壤中某些营养元素,造成这些元素亏缺,若欠缺的元素得不到及时的补充,会引起马铃薯缺素症,使其抗逆性减弱,最终导致产量和品质下降[1]。而未被吸收元素会不断积累,造成单盐毒害,使土壤养分失衡[6]。研究表明,随着马铃薯连作年限的增加,土壤中的全氮、全磷、全钾、碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾、铁和锰含量呈下降趋势[7,8]

马铃薯连作能够显著影响土壤物理结构,土壤团聚体直径和稳定性下降,抗侵蚀能力减弱,土壤比重、容重增加,孔隙度降低,根系对水分和肥料的吸收利用效率显著下降,使马铃薯植株生长发育不良,造成块茎产量和品质的下降[9,10,11]

作物在生长发育过程中会大量吸收阳离子元素,释放H+,导致土壤pH降低,造成土壤酸化[12]。酸化土壤不利于有益微生物繁殖,抑制了土壤养分循环,同时一些有害微生物的大量繁殖还会导致作物生长不良[13]。并且,由于复种指数高,pH降低,土壤有机质含量降低,致使土壤团粒结构减少,进而造成土壤板结[14]

土壤盐渍化是连作障碍的主要因素之一。土壤发生盐渍化会增加土壤溶液浓度,增大土壤渗透势,使作物根系吸水、吸肥能力减弱,还会限制土壤微生物的活动,影响作物抗逆性和土壤养分的有效性,使植株生长发育不良[15,16]

土壤中的一切物理化学反应都是在酶的参与下进行的,土壤酶在土壤生态系统的物质循环和能量交换中起着重要作用[17,18]。连作会造成土壤酶活性的改变,进而影响土壤营养物质的形成。研究表明,随着马铃薯连作年限的增加,土壤蔗糖酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、氧化还原酶、过氧化氢酶、转化酶、酚氧化酶和蛋白酶活性显著降低[19,20,21,22]

1.2 植物的化感自毒作用

作物连作后存在着明显的化感自毒现象,导致作物根系活力降低,养分利用率降低,土壤病原菌增加,使植物生长发育不良[23]。化感物质的主要来源是作物地上部的挥发、淋溶,根系的分泌物和植株残体的分解等[24]

很多化感自毒物质都能引起连作障碍,已经鉴定了几组化学物质会引发自毒作用,例如类固醇、类黄酮、氰基糖苷、生物碱、萜类和酚酸类化合物。酚酸类化合物是造成连作障碍的主要物质,酚酸类物质对植株生长发育的影响主要表现为抑制种子萌发,破坏根系或其他分生组织,从而抑制幼苗的生长[25]。Louws等[26]研究认为,土传病害发生和植株长势较差是连作障碍发生的直观表象,根本原因是根系分泌物和腐解物中的酚酸类化感物质,造成土壤微生态失衡。某些根系分泌物如儿茶素和类黄酮,是一些变形菌的碳源,如假单胞菌(Pseudomonas),它们直接影响作物的生长,或通过生物转化成其他毒性化合物,如花旗松素和酚酸,这些有机酸的积累会降低土壤pH[27]

马铃薯根系分泌物主要包括烷烃类、醇类、酯类、胺类、酸类和生物碱等化合物,且烃类、酯类、酸类含量相对较高。研究表明,连作马铃薯苗期土壤中丙酸丙酯、1,2-苯二甲酸二酯含量增高,末花期土壤中十六烷酸丙基酯含量增高[28,29]。张文明等[30]研究表明,马铃薯根系分泌物中的棕榈酸和邻苯二甲酸二丁酯显著抑制马铃薯的生长,并促进立枯丝核菌的繁殖。由此可知,多年连作土壤微生物群落动态变化与根系分泌物密切相关。此外,土壤pH随着根系分泌物浓度的变化而变化,最终导致对pH敏感的微生物群落的数量随连作时间延长而下降。Arafat等[31]研究表明,及时从土壤中去除植物残体可以缓解化感自毒物质的积累,延缓土壤pH的降低。

1.3 土壤微生物群落变化

土壤微生物是陆地生态系统的重要组成部分,其数量不仅能反映能量代谢的程度,还能反映土壤肥力状况[32]。因此,土壤微生物群落的变化被认为是连作障碍的主要因素之一[33]。根际土壤微生物主要包含细菌和真菌。细菌是根际土壤微生物中数量最多的一类微生物[34],根际微生物总量和细菌的数量与土壤肥沃程度呈正相关,真菌和放线菌的数量与土壤肥沃程度呈负相关[35]。研究表明,土壤中真菌/细菌,比值越低,土壤生态系统越稳定,土壤抑制病害能力越强[4]。随着马铃薯连作年限的增加,土壤从中性变为酸性,有益菌属如芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、生赤壳属(Bionectria)和木霉属(Hypocrea)的数量减少,根际有害菌属如罗尔斯通菌属(Ralstonia)和镰刀菌属(Fusarium Link)的数量显著增加[36,37]。而真菌的多样性有所提高,其中粪壳菌纲(Sordariomycetes)和肉座菌目(Hypocreales)的丰度随马铃薯连作年限增加而增大,土壤从“细菌型”转变为“真菌型”,土壤微生物群落结构失衡,尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum)、硫色镰刀菌(F. sulphureum)、茄病镰刀菌(F. solani)、立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani)和大丽轮枝菌(Verticilliu dahliae)等致病菌丰度增加,马铃薯干腐病、枯萎病、黄萎病和根腐病等病害的患病风险升高,影响马铃薯的产量及品质[38,39]

健康植株与患病植株根部有显著差异的细菌门是蓝细菌(Cyanobacteria)、变形菌(Proteobacteria)、放线菌(Actinobacteria)和酸杆菌(Acidobacteria)[40]

研究表明,患病植株根际土壤细菌和根内源细菌中欧文氏菌(Erwinia)、嗜麦芽寡养单胞菌(Smaltophilia)和假单胞菌(Pseudomonas)的比例相对较高,这些可能是重要的病原菌[41]。作物连作后,参与碳、硫、氮循环的多数有益菌,如盐单胞菌(Halomonas)、蓝细菌、伯克霍尔德菌(Burkholderia)和根瘤菌(Rhizobium)丰度降低[42]。许多研究表明,厚壁菌(Firmicutes)和放线菌在抑制土壤病害中发挥重要作用。放线菌是土壤中养分的主要来源之一,也是生态系统中最为广泛的细菌门类之一,可以产生抗菌和杀线虫化合物来预防土传病害,例如大豆根腐病和马铃薯疮痂病[43]。厚壁菌在健康的土壤中富集,而在病害土壤中丰度较低[44]。变形菌在维持土壤生态系统功能中扮演着重要角色,并在氮素以及能量循环中发挥作用[45]。拟杆菌(Bacteroidetes)是土壤养分周转的重要贡献者,在土壤氮循环中也发挥重要作用[46]。虽然没有直接证据表明芽单胞菌(Gemmatimonadetes)对植物病害具有生物防治效果,但之前的研究报道[47]指出该菌门在健康小麦根际显著富集。

1.4 土壤微生态系统与连作障碍

根际是由植物根系与土壤微生物间相互作用而形成的独特区域,是土壤、植物根系和微生物三者之间相互作用的重要场所[41]。作物种类影响根际微生物的群落结构和多样性,而微生物群落的变化又影响作物的生长发育[48]。一方面,根际土壤中存在着积极的土壤反馈机制,微生物通过产生植物生长所需激素,促进植物养分吸收,抑制植物病原体[49];另一方面,也存在植物—土壤负反馈调节,由于植物产生的有毒物质在土壤中积累,使得作物根系活力降低,养分利用率降低,土壤病原菌增加,导致自毒或土壤病害[50]发生。研究[31]表明,多年连作茶树土壤类黄酮、儿茶素、花旗松素和酚酸水平较高,导致土壤pH降低,变形菌、拟杆菌和厚壁菌与这几种根系分泌物的浓度密切相关。

研究发现,影响细菌和真菌群落变化的土壤理化因子有:有机碳、总氮、速效磷、pH、土壤团聚体的稳定性[51]。其中真菌的子囊菌(Ascomycota)和担子菌(Basidiomycota)的丰度不受施氮水平和特定酶活性的影响,而细菌门的丰度通常与氮水平相关[52]。研究结果[53]表明,土壤pH是作物细菌和真菌群落组成的强力影响因子,土壤pH与细菌丰度具有显著正相关关系。此外,许多研究报道[54,55]了土壤有机碳含量与土壤病害发病率呈负相关,这表明土壤有机碳在防治土壤病害中具有潜在作用。在马铃薯生产中,为了提高产量,种植者使用大量的氮肥和磷肥,而有机肥料长期被忽略[42],使土壤pH和有机质含量降低,土壤中的细菌种类和丰度降低,如放线菌、蓝细菌、绿弯菌(Chloroflexi)、硝化螺旋菌(Nitrospirae)和芽单胞菌;而潜在病原菌的丰度增加,如鞘氨醇单胞菌属(Sphingomonas)和土地杆菌属(Pedobacter)[56]。病原菌成为优势菌群后,引起马铃薯病害,使连作障碍更加严重[33]

马铃薯连作障碍的形成过程涉及马铃薯根系、土壤、微生物等多个因素,并受肥水等环境因素的影响。因此,马铃薯根际微生态系统综合功能的失调是造成马铃薯连作障碍的主要原因,综合各种因素绘制了各因素与马铃薯连作障碍之间的关系图(图1)。

图1

图1   马铃薯连作障碍关系图

Fig.1   Diagram of potato continuous cropping obstacles


2 防治措施

2.1 合理轮作和间套作

轮作可以缓解或克服连作障碍[57]。科学合理的轮作系统可以最大限度地减少连作障碍,与饲料作物轮作已被证明是实现克服连作障碍的有效途径[58]。秦舒浩等[59]研究表明,轮作苜蓿和豌豆对后茬马铃薯增产效果明显。王丽红等[60]研究发现,豌豆-马铃薯-豌豆轮作后的土壤蔗糖酶活性明显提高,小麦-豌豆-马铃薯轮作后土壤中的放线菌及细菌数量增加。马铃薯-油葵轮作能显著提高土壤有机质、碱解氮及速效磷含量,提高土壤pH,改善土壤微生物环境及马铃薯光合性能,促进植株生长发育[61]

合理间作不但能促进作物生长发育,提高寄主作物的生理抗性,还可以恢复原有正常的微生物群落结构和多样性,改善土壤微生态环境[62]。研究表明,间作蚕豆能够显著降低土壤真菌数量,提高土壤微生物群落对碳源的利用能力,而且能维持较稳定的产量,在连作马铃薯的土地上间作蚕豆是一种有利于改善马铃薯连作根际微生态环境、缓解连作障碍的栽培模式[63]。而马铃薯-玉米间作时根际土壤细菌群落数目、根际土壤细菌总纲数均有所增加,有益菌属比例随之上升,潜在致病菌比例下降,连作障碍得以缓解[64]。间套种高粱、谷子后马铃薯烂薯率下降,块茎产量与商品薯率有一定程度的提高[65]

2.2 合理施肥

González等[66]研究认为合理施肥具有显著缓解连作障碍的作用。针对施肥中存在的问题,应推广平衡施肥技术,以土壤养分测定分析结果和作物需肥规律为基础确定肥料施用种类和施用量,并在植株生长过程中施用叶面肥以补充微量元素,调节作物生长发育,防治病虫害。

研究表明,长期施用化肥会导致土壤pH下降,土壤中细菌的物种数、Chao1和Shannon等多样性指数均显著降低[56]。而有机肥可以改善土壤结构,对植物潜在病原菌具有抑制作用并能增加有益菌的丰度[67]。因此,在生产中化肥和有机肥应配合施用。此外,秸秆还田也是减轻连作障碍的有效措施。秸秆含有大量养分,其分解过程中会缓慢向土壤释放有机质和矿物质,并且秸秆等还可以提高地温,增加土壤孔隙度和通透性,增加土壤微生物的种类和数量[68]

施用生物菌肥能显著改善土壤微生物群落结构,缓解连作障碍。赵丽婷等[69]研究发现,向连作马铃薯田中施用酵母生物肥可显著改善马铃薯农艺性状及土壤物理性质,提高土壤养分含量,增加作物产量。研究[70]表明,腐植酸铵、有机肥与微生物肥配施可有效缓解马铃薯连作障碍。此外,播前施足基肥,使用微型薯,对种薯进行包衣,中耕培土,以及施用多效唑和膨大素均对消除马铃薯连作障碍有一定的作用。

2.3 土壤消毒

土传病害滋生和泛滥是大多数农作物连作障碍的显著特征,在连作障碍的防控中,抑制土壤病虫害的发生尤为重要[33]。进行土壤杀菌是抑制土传病虫害发生的有效途径。研究表明,土壤消毒能显著提高连作马铃薯块茎产量及品质,降低植株发病率,且对马铃薯植株生物量及生育期内土壤酶活性的影响较小[38]

目前进行土壤杀菌的方法主要有化学药剂法、高温法、太阳能法、微波杀菌法、电杀菌法等[71]。常用的化学药剂包括甲醛、氯仿、甲基溴、三氯硝基甲烷等,使用这些化学药剂可以有效杀灭土壤中的病原菌、害虫、线虫和杂草,阻杀由种子带入土壤的病原菌、线虫卵和杂草种子。以甲醛和高锰酸钾为熏蒸剂对连作土壤进行熏蒸处理,可增加连作土壤微生物群落的功能多样性,缓解连作障碍[72]。高温法是替代传统化学方法的一种物理土壤消毒法,它利用高温蒸汽或太阳的热辐射来提升土壤温度杀灭细菌。郭成瑾等[73]研究表明,对马铃薯连作土壤进行高温干热灭菌处理,能显著减少马铃薯根际真菌数量。

3 问题

3.1 连作障碍的机理仍不明确

目前,虽然提出了一些克服连作障碍的措施,但对连作障碍的机理仍不明确。马铃薯连作障碍发生的原因复杂多样,不仅与土壤理化性状劣变和化感自毒作用有关,还与土壤微生物环境的相互作用有关。现阶段对连作障碍的研究主要集中在土壤理化性质及化感自毒作用、根际微生物群落的变化等单一因素的研究,并没有将这些因素综合分析。

根际微生物群落的结构及多样性是影响土壤功能和质量的重要指标。随着测序技术的日趋成熟,利用土壤宏基因组测序手段系统分析马铃薯根际微生物的群落变化规律,从植物、土壤和根际微生物的相互作用方面展开深入研究,是今后研究的重点。

3.2 防治措施需优化

生产上克服马铃薯连作障碍的措施主要是轮作倒茬,再结合土壤消毒、合理施肥等。但是,由于各种因素的限制,在许多产区连作现象仍然存在,有些地方连作面积还有增加的趋势。因此,研究马铃薯连作障碍机理,研发防治连作障碍的相关产品与技术很有必要。除了一些常规的防治措施外,改造根际微生物群落结构已经成为一个新的研究方向。

4 展望

马铃薯是我国的主要粮食作物,目前连作现象普遍,严重影响了马铃薯的产量和品质。由于产生马铃薯连作障碍原因较多,形成机理复杂,克服连作障碍技术和方法的建立、完善仍需进一步研究,未来可在根际微生物方面进行重点研究。土壤微生物在维持土壤健康方面发挥着关键作用,植物的根际土壤富集各种微生物,这些微生物通过调节养分获取,控制植物病原体的生长来影响植物健康。因此,了解土壤微生物群落的功能至关重要。土壤微生物可作为植物病原菌或生长促进因子直接影响植物生长,或通过与其他微生物相互作用间接对植物生长起到促进或抑制作用[5,48]。连作过程中土壤理化性质的变劣通常是由于病原菌丰度的增加,到目前为止,还没有明确马铃薯连作系统中土壤微生物群落的变化规律。基于分子生物学和生物信息学的进步,土壤生态学等相关问题研究的深入,通过基因工程技术改造根际自生细菌,从而调控土壤微生物群落结构,是解决连作障碍很有前景的方法。

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The Journal of Applied Ecology, 2012,23(10):2693-2700.

URL     PMID:23359928      [本文引用: 1]

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of applying endophytic fungi Phomopsis liquidambari strain B3, Phomopsis sp. strain NJ4.1, and Ceratobasidum stevensii strain B6 on the soil biological characteristics and enzyme activities under continuously cropped peanut at its different growth stages. Compared with the control, applying B3 increased the peanut yield significantly by 19.8%, and applying NJ4.1, B3 and B6 increased the peanut nodule number significantly by 20.4%, 29.3% and 27.6%, respectively. In the three treatments of applying endophytic fungi, the average population of soil bacteria and actinomycetes in the whole growth period of peanut was higher than that of the control, and the soil microbial biomass carbon was significantly greater at germination and seedling stages. The soil microbial biomass nitrogen increased at germination stage, but decreased at flowering stage. The DGGE analysis indicated that at flowering stage, the soil bacteria and fungi in treatment B3 had the largest band number and diversity. From germination stage to maturing stage, the three treatments of applying endophytic fungi had higher activities of soil invertase and catalase than the control, but less difference in soil urease activity. It was suggested that applying endophytic fungi could improve the peanut continuous cropping soil environment, and applying B3 had the best effect.

Grün A L, Straskraba S, Schulz S , et al.

Long-term effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of silver nanoparticles on microbial biomass,enzyme activity,and functional genes involved in the nitrogen cycle of loamy soil

Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2018,69:12-22.

DOI:10.1016/j.jes.2018.04.013      URL     PMID:29941247      [本文引用: 1]

The increasing production and use of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in industry and private households are leading to increased concentrations of AgNP in the environment. An ecological risk assessment of AgNP is needed, but it requires understanding the long term effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of AgNP on the soil microbiome. Hence, the aim of this study was to reveal the long-term effects of AgNP on soil microorganisms. The study was conducted as a laboratory incubation experiment over a period of one year using a loamy soil and AgNP concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg AgNP/kg soil. The short term effects of AgNP were, in general, limited. However, after one year of exposure to 0.01 mg AgNP/kg, there were significant negative effects on soil microbial biomass (quantified by extractable DNA; p = 0.000) and bacterial ammonia oxidizers (quantified by amoA gene copy numbers; p = 0.009). Furthermore, the tested AgNP concentrations significantly decreased the soil microbial biomass, the leucine aminopeptidase activity (quantified by substrate turnover; p = 0.014), and the abundance of nitrogen fixing microorganisms (quantified by nifH gene copy numbers; p = 0.001). The results of the positive control with AgNO3 revealed predominantly stronger effects due to Ag+ ion release. Thus, the increasing toxicity of AgNP during the test period may reflect the long-term release of Ag+ ions. Nevertheless, even very low concentrations of AgNP caused disadvantages for the microbial soil community, especially for nitrogen cycling, and our results confirmed the risks of releasing AgNP into the environment.

胡元森, 吴坤, 李翠香 .

酚酸物质对黄瓜幼苗及枯萎病菌菌丝生长的影响

生态学报, 2007,26(11):1738-1742.

[本文引用: 1]

张婷玉, 林多, 杨延杰 .

辣椒根系分泌物的收集方法研究

北方园艺,2014(12):14-17.

[本文引用: 1]

尹琪淋, 谢越 .

酚酸类物质导致植物连作障碍的研究进展

安徽农业科学, 2011,39(34):20977-20978,20985.

[本文引用: 1]

Louws F J, Rivard C L, Kubota C .

Grafting fruiting vegetables to manage soilborne pathogens,foliar pathogens,arthropods and weeds

Scientia Horticulturae, 2010,127(2):127-146.

DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2010.09.023      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Wang C M, Li T C, Jan Y L , et al.

The impact of microbial biotransformation of catechin in enhancing the allelopathic effects of rhododendron formosanum

PLoS ONE, 2013,8(12):e85162.

DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085162      URL     PMID:24391991      [本文引用: 1]

Rhododendron formosanum is distributed widely in the central mountains in Taiwan and the major allelopathic compound in the leaves has been identified as (-)-catechin, which is also a major allelochemical of an invasive spotted knapweed in North America. Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystems and influence various important processes, including allelopathy. However, no microorganism has been identified as an allelochemical mediator. This study focused on the role of microorganisms in the allelopathic effects of R. formosanum. The microorganism population in the rhizosphere of R. formosanum was investigated and genetic analysis revealed that the predominant genera of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of R. formosanum were Pseudomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Burkholderia. The dominant genera Pseudomonas utilized (-)-catechin as the carbon source and catalyzed the conversion of (-)-catechin into protocatechuic acid in vitro. The concentrations of allelochemicals in the soil were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of (-)-catechin in the soil increased significantly during the extreme rainfall in the summer season and suppressed total bacterial populations. Protocatechuic acid accumulation was observed while total bacterial populations increased abundantly in both laboratory and field studies. Allelopathic interactions were tested by evaluating the effects of different allelochemicals on the seed germination, radicle growth, and photosynthesis system II of lettuce. Protocatechuic acid exhibited higher phytotoxicity than (-)-catechin did and the effect of (-)-catechin on the inhibition of seed germination was enhanced by combining it with protocatechuic acid at a low concentration. This study revealed the significance of the allelopathic interactions between R. formosanum and microorganisms in the rhizosphere. These findings demonstrate that knowledge regarding the precise biotransformation process of (-)-catechin by microorganisms in the environment is necessary to increase our understanding of allelopathy.

沈宝云, 李朝周, 余斌 , .

甘肃沿黄灌区连作马铃薯根区土壤有机物GC-MS分析

干旱地区农业研究, 2016,34(3):1-7.

[本文引用: 1]

杨桂丽, 马琨, 卢斐 , .

马铃薯连作栽培对土壤化感物质及微生物群落的影响

生态与农村环境学报, 2015,31(5):711-717.

[本文引用: 1]

张文明, 邱慧珍, 刘星 , .

连作对马铃薯根系形态及吸收能力的影响

干旱地区农业研究, 2014,32(1):34-37,46.

[本文引用: 1]

Arafat Y, Wei X Y, Jiang Y H , et al.

Spatial distribution patterns of root-associated bacterial communities mediated by root exudates in different aged ratooning tea monoculture systems

International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2017,18(8):1727.

DOI:10.3390/ijms18081727      URL     PMID:28786955      [本文引用: 2]

Positive plant-soil feedback depends on beneficial interactions between roots and microbes for nutrient acquisition; growth promotion; and disease suppression. Recent pyrosequencing approaches have provided insight into the rhizosphere bacterial communities in various cropping systems. However; there is a scarcity of information about the influence of root exudates on the composition of root-associated bacterial communities in ratooning tea monocropping systems of different ages. In Southeastern China; tea cropping systems provide the unique natural experimental environment to compare the distribution of bacterial communities in different rhizo-compartments. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) was performed to identify and quantify the allelochemicals in root exudates. A high-throughput sequence was used to determine the structural dynamics of the root-associated bacterial communities. Although soil physiochemical properties showed no significant differences in nutrients; long-term tea cultivation resulted in the accumulation of catechin-containing compounds in the rhizosphere and a lowering of pH. Moreover; distinct distribution patterns of bacterial taxa were observed in all three rhizo-compartments of two-year and 30-year monoculture tea; mediated strongly by soil pH and catechin-containing compounds. These results will help to explore the reasons why soil quality and fertility are disturbed in continuous ratooning tea monocropping systems; and to clarify the associated problems.

He J Z, Zheng Y, Chen C R , et al.

Microbial composition and diversity of an upland red soil under long-term fertilization treatments as revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches

Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2008,8(5):349-358.

DOI:10.1007/s11368-008-0025-1      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Background, aim, and scope  

Fertilization is an important agricultural practice for increasing crop yields. In order to maintain the soil sustainability, it is important to monitor the effects of fertilizer applications on the shifts of soil microorganisms, which control the cycling of many nutrients in the soil. Here, culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to analyze the soil bacterial and fungal quantities and community structure under seven fertilization treatments, including Control, Manure, Return (harvested peanut straw was returned to the plot), and chemical fertilizers of NPK, NP, NK, and PK. The objective of this study was to examine the effects on soil microbial composition and diversity of long-term organic and chemical fertilizer regimes in a Chinese upland red soil.

Berendsen R L, Pieterse M J, Bakker P A H M .

The rhizosphere microbiome and plant health

Trends in Plant Science, 2012,17(8):478-486.

DOI:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.04.001      URL     [本文引用: 3]

The diversity of microbes associated with plant roots is enormous, in the order of tens of thousands of species. This complex plant-associated microbial community, also referred to as the second genome of the plant, is crucial for plant health. Recent advances in plant-microbe interactions research revealed that plants are able to shape their rhizosphere microbiome, as evidenced by the fact that different plant species host specific microbial communities when grown on the same soil. In this review, we discuss evidence that upon pathogen or insect attack, plants are able to recruit protective microorganisms, and enhance microbial activity to suppress pathogens in the rhizosphere. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that govern selection and activity of microbial communities by plant roots will provide new opportunities to increase crop production.

Prashar P, Kapoor N, Sachdeva S .

Biocontrol of plant pathogens using plant growth promoting bacteria

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews, 2013,12:319-360.

DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-10-19-0383-R      URL     PMID:31799901      [本文引用: 1]

Fusarium root and crown rot is the most common disease of wheat especially grown in arid zones where drought is a common issue. Development of environmentally safe approaches to manage diseases of food crops is important for human. The monocropping system recruits beneficial bacteria that promote plant growth through solubilizing nutrients and suppressing the pathogens. In present study, a field, where wheat crop was monocropped for successive five years under rainfed conditions, was identified. A total of twenty nine bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere, endosphere and phyllosphere of wheat at its harvesting stage. The Gram-negative bacteria were found to be less prevalent (41%) but majority of them (75%) exhibited plant growth promoting traits. The ability of strains to solubilize nutrients (solubilization index = 2.3-4), inhibit pathogenic fungi (25-56%) and produce antifungal compounds was highly variable. The rhizobacteria significantly promoted the growth and disease resistance of wheat varieties viz Pirsbak-2015 and Galaxy-2013 by inducing the antioxidant enzymes activity (0.2-2.1 folds). The bacterial strains were identified as Ochrobactrum spp., Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas mediterranea by 16S rRNA and rpoD sequence analysis. The endophytic bacterium P. mediterranea HU-9 exhibited maximum biocontrol efficacy against wheat root and crown rot diseases with disease score/disease index (1.8-3.1). The monocropping systems of rainfed agriculture is ideal source of beneficial bacteria to use as bioinoculants for different crops.

Hu H Q, Li X S, Hong H .

Characterization of an antimicrobial material from a newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from mangrove for biocontrol of capsicum bacterial wilt

Biological Control, 2010,54(3):359-365.

DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2010.06.015      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract

Understanding the mechanisms of the antagonistic endophytic bacteria is helpful in controlling plant diseases. An endophytic bacterium, Bg-C31, from mangrove was found to be antagonistic to some fungal and bacterial pathogens of plants and to be effective in the biocontrol of Capsicum bacterial wilt in pot and field trials. Bg-C31 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by biochemical and physiological tests as well as sequences of 16S rDNA and the LCI gene. The antimicrobial substance produced by Bg-C31 was identified as a protein, which is resistant to protease k and heat, by ammonium sulfate precipitation and butanol extraction. The antagonistic gene was located in the chromosome by plasmid curing. A 29 kDa fusion protein of the LCI gene was expressed. Antimicrobial activity of the fusion protein to Ralstonia solanacearum was detected on gels in situ, indicating that the LCI gene could potentially be used to produce transgenic plants that are resistant to bacterial infection.

Glaring M A, Vester J K, Lylloff J E , et al.

Microbial diversity in a permanently cold and alkaline environment in greenland

PLoS ONE, 2015,10(4):e0124863.

DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0124863      URL     PMID:25915866      [本文引用: 1]

The submarine ikaite columns located in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland represent a unique, permanently cold (less than 6°C) and alkaline (above pH 10) environment and are home to a microbial community adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial and archaeal community inhabiting the ikaite columns and surrounding fjord was characterised by high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Analysis of the ikaite community structure revealed the presence of a diverse bacterial community, both in the column interior and at the surface, and very few archaea. A clear difference in overall taxonomic composition was observed between column interior and surface. Whereas the surface, and in particular newly formed ikaite material, was primarily dominated by Cyanobacteria and phototrophic Proteobacteria, the column interior was dominated by Proteobacteria and putative anaerobic representatives of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The results suggest a stratification of the ikaite columns similar to that of classical soda lakes, with a light-exposed surface inhabited by primary producers and an anoxic subsurface. This was further supported by identification of major taxonomic groups with close relatives in soda lake environments, including members of the genera Rhodobaca, Dethiobacter, Thioalkalivibrio and Tindallia, as well as very abundant groups related to uncharacterised environmental sequences originally isolated from Mono Lake in California.

Atkinson D, Thornton M K, Miller J S .

Development of Rhizoctonia solani on stems,stolons and tubers of potatoes Ⅰ. Effect of inoculum source

American Journal of Potato Research, 2010,87(4):374-381.

DOI:10.1007/s12230-010-9143-6      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Rhizoctonia solani may affect potato growth, yield and grade through lesions on stems and stolons and through development of black scurf on daughter tubers. R. solani inoculum can be found on seed potatoes and in the soil, although the relative importance of each inoculum source is unknown. Field studies at Parma and Aberdeen, Idaho, were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the importance of each source of inoculum on the subsequent development of this disease. Seed of cultivars Ranger Russet (2004) and Russet Burbank (2005) was washed and sorted into three (2004) and two (2005) levels of black scurf. Prior to planting, the plots were inoculated with R. solani cultures mixed with vermiculite at low, medium and high rates. Each level of seed inoculum was planted at each level of soil inoculum. Significantly greater levels of disease on stems and stolons was consistently found on plants grown from high inoculum seed compared to low inoculum seed. However, significant effects of soil inoculum level on stem and stolon disease were rarely seen. In contrast, both seed and soil inoculum level influenced the development of black scurf on daughter tubers. The largest response to soil inoculum level was seen when seed inoculum was low.

谭雪莲, 郭天文, 刘高远 .

马铃薯连作土壤微生物特性与土传病原菌的相互关系

灌溉排水学报, 2016,35(8):30-35.

[本文引用: 2]

Mendes R, Garbeva P, Raaijmakers J M .

The rhizosphere microbiome:significance of plant beneficial,plant pathogenic,and human pathogenic microorganisms

FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 2013,37(5):634-663.

DOI:10.1111/1574-6976.12028      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Microbial communities play a pivotal role in the functioning of plants by influencing their physiology and development. While many members of the rhizosphere microbiome are beneficial to plant growth, also plant pathogenic microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere striving to break through the protective microbial shield and to overcome the innate plant defense mechanisms in order to cause disease. A third group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere are the true and opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria, which can be carried on or in plant tissue and may cause disease when introduced into debilitated humans. Although the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized, for the vast majority of rhizosphere microorganisms no knowledge exists. To enhance plant growth and health, it is essential to know which microorganism is present in the rhizosphere microbiome and what they are doing. Here, we review the main functions of rhizosphere microorganisms and how they impact on health and disease. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the multitrophic interactions and chemical dialogues that occur in the rhizosphere. Finally, we highlight several strategies to redirect or reshape the rhizosphere microbiome in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health.

Qin S, Yeboah S, Cao L , et al.

Breaking continuous potato cropping with legumes improves soil microbial communities,enzyme activities and tuber yield

PLoS ONE, 2017,12(5):e0175934.

DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0175934      URL     PMID:28463981      [本文引用: 1]

This study was conducted to explore the changes in soil microbial populations, enzyme activity, and tuber yield under the rotation sequences of Potato-Common vetch (P-C), Potato-Black medic (P-B) and Potato-Longdong alfalfa (P-L) in a semi-arid area of China. The study also determined the effects of continuous potato cropping (without legumes) on the above mentioned soil properties and yield. The number of bacteria increased significantly (p < 0.05) under P-B rotation by 78%, 85% and 83% in the 2, 4 and 7-year continuous cropping soils, respectively compared to P-C rotation. The highest fungi/bacteria ratio was found in P-C (0.218), followed by P-L (0.184) and then P-B (0.137) rotation over the different cropping years. In the continuous potato cropping soils, the greatest fungi/bacteria ratio was recorded in the 4-year (0.4067) and 7-year (0.4238) cropping soils and these were significantly higher than 1-year (0.3041), 2-year (0.2545) and 3-year (0.3030) cropping soils. Generally, actinomycetes numbers followed the trend P-L>P-C>P-B. The P-L rotation increased aerobic azotobacters in 2-year (by 26% and 18%) and 4-year (40% and 21%) continuous cropping soils compared to P-C and P-B rotation, respectively. Generally, the highest urease and alkaline phosphate activity, respectively, were observed in P-C (55.77 mg g-1) and (27.71 mg g-1), followed by P-B (50.72 mg mg-1) and (25.64 mg g-1) and then P-L (41.61 mg g-1) and (23.26 mg g-1) rotation. Soil urease, alkaline phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase activities decreased with increasing years of continuous potato cropping. On average, the P-B rotation significantly increased (p <0.05) tuber yield by 19% and 18%, compared to P-C and P-L rotation respectively. P-L rotation also increased potato tuber yield compared to P-C, but the effect was lesser relative to P-B rotation. These results suggest that adopting potato-legume rotation system has the potential to improve soil biology environment, alleviate continuous cropping obstacle and increase potato tuber yield in semi-arid region.

Tan Y, Cui Y, Li H , et al.

Rhizospheric soil and root endogenous fungal diversity and composition in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices

Microbiological Research, 2017,194:10-19.

DOI:10.1016/j.micres.2016.09.009      URL     PMID:27938858      [本文引用: 2]

Rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities are considered critically important for plant health and soil fertility. In response to continuous cropping, Panax notoginseng becomes vulnerable to attack by fungal pathogens. In the present study, culture-independent Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices. The results demonstrated that fungal diversity is increased inside the roots and in rhizospheric. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of Panax notoginseng. The fungal diversity in the rhizospheric soil and roots of root-rot P. notoginseng plants are less than that of healthy plants in the same cultivating year, thus showing that root-rot disease also affects the community structure and diversity of rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi. Similarities in the major fungal components show that endophytic fungal communities are similar to rhizospheric soil fungal community based on a specialized subset of organisms. Canonical correspondence analysis on the fungal communities in root-rot rhizospheric from both healthy plants and rotation soils reveals that the soil pH and organic matter have the greatest impact upon the microbial community composition during continuous cropping, whereas soil nutrition status does not significantly affect the fungal community composition in response to continuous cropping practices. In addition, the results suggest that the unclassified genera Leotiomycetes, Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and Mycocentrospora are shown as the potential pathogens which are responsible for the obstacles in continuous cropping of P. notoginseng. Further exploration of these potential pathogens might be useful for the biological control of continuous cropping of P. notoginseng.

Li Y C, Li Z, Li Z W , et al.

Variations of rhizosphere bacterial communities in tea (Camellia sinensis L. ) continuous cropping soil by high-throughput pyrosequencing approach

Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2016,121(3):787-799.

DOI:10.1111/jam.13225      URL     PMID:27377624      [本文引用: 2]

The goal was to investigate the dynamics of soil bacterial community in the chronosequence tea orchards.

Franche C, Lindström K, Elmerich C .

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with leguminous and non-leguminous plants

Plant and Soil, 2009,321(1):35-59.

DOI:10.1264/jsme2.ME19030      URL     PMID:31611488      [本文引用: 1]

The present study was performed to investigate root-associated bacteria from Platycodon grandiflorum, a medicinal plant commonly grown in East Asia. Isolates were obtained from the rhizosphere or root interior with various culture media, and phylogenetic analyses were performed based on their 16S rDNA sequences. In consideration of practical applications, traits related to plant growth promotion and niche adaptation were assessed in several endophytic strains with fewer biosafety concerns. The effects of a bacterial inoculation on seedling and mature plant growth were evaluated. Seventeen genera that encompassed more than 30 bacterial lineages were successfully retrieved from the roots, the majority of which have not been reported as P. grandiflorum-associated bacteria, particularly for non-negligible Proteobacteria. Although nitrogen-fixing or phosphate-solubilizing and indole acetic acid-producing activities were recorded in all of the strains selected, these strains were beneficial or detrimental to plant growth as evidenced by their influence on the length of seedlings and biomass of mature plants. Among the 4 endophytic Rhizobium species tested in the present study, the potentially novel Rhizobium sp. BF-E16, which was more compatible with the non-leguminous medicinal plant P. grandiflorum, was identified. Other than plant growth-promoting traits, characteristics such as plant constituent-hydrolyzing activities need to be taken into consideration and their roles clarified when investigating plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

Xiong W, Zhao Q Y, Zhao J , et al.

Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing

Microbial Ecology, 2015,70(1):209-218.

DOI:10.1007/s00248-014-0516-0      URL     PMID:25391237      [本文引用: 1]

In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

İnceoğlu Ö, Al-Soud W A, Salles J F ,et al.

Comparative analysis of bacterial communities in a potato field as determined by pyrosequencing

PLoS ONE, 2011,6(8):e23321.

DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0023321      URL     PMID:21886785      [本文引用: 1]

Plants selectively attract particular soil microorganisms, in particular consumers of root-excreted compounds. It is unclear to what extent cultivar type and/or growth stage affect this process.

Yousuf B, Keshri J, Mishra A , et al.

Application of targeted metagenomics to explore abundance and diversity of CO2-fixing bacterial community using cbbL gene from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea

Gene, 2012,506(1):18-24.

DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2012.06.083      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Sequestration of CO2 by autotrophic bacteria is a key process of biogeochemical carbon cycling in soil ecosystem. Rhizosphere is a rich niche of microbial activity and diversity, influenced by change in atmospheric CO2. Structural changes in rhizosphere composition influence microbial communities and the nutrient cycling. In the present study, the bacterial diversity and population dynamics were established using cbbL and 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomics approach from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea. A total of 108 cbbL clones were obtained from the rhizospheric soil which revealed predominance of cbbL sequences affiliated to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium meliloti, Ochrobactrum anthropi and a variety of uncultured cbbL,harboring bacteria. The 16S rRNA,gene clone library exhibited the dominance of Firmicutes (34.4%), Proteobacteria (18.3%), Actinobacteria (17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (16.1%). About 43% nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene clone library were novel genera which showed <95% homology with published sequences. Gene copy number of cbbL and 16S rRNA genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT PCR), was 938 +/- 0.75 x 10(7) and 5.43 +/- 0.79 x 10(8) (per g dry soil), respectively. The results exhibited bacterial community structure with high bacterial diversity and abundance of CO2-fixing bacteria, which can be explored further for their role in carbon cycling, sustainable agriculture and environment management. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Shen Z, Zhong S, Wang Y , et al.

Induced soil microbial suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease using compost and biofertilizers to improve yield and quality

European Journal of Soil Biology, 2013,57(4):1-8.

DOI:10.1016/j.ejsobi.2013.03.006      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Edwards J, Johnson C, Santos-Medellín C , et al.

Structure,variation,and assembly of the root-associated microbiomes of rice

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2015,112(8):E911-E920.

[本文引用: 2]

Klironomos J N .

Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities

Nature, 2002,417(6884):67-70.

DOI:10.1038/417067a      URL     PMID:11986666      [本文引用: 1]

Understanding the relative abundance of species in plant communities is an unsolved problem. Mechanisms such as competition, resource partitioning, dispersal ability and predation tolerance do not adequately explain relative abundance under field conditions. Recent work suggests that interactions between plants and soil microbes is important. Here I show that such interaction explains a significant proportion of the variance in the relative abundance of species in plant communities. Rare plants exhibited a relative decrease in growth on 'home' soil in which pathogens had had a chance to accumulate, whereas invasive plants benefited from interactions with mycorrhizal fungi. Some plant species accumulate pathogens quickly and maintain low densities as a result of the accumulation of species-specific pathogens, whereas others accumulate species-specific pathogens more slowly and do not experience negative feedback until plant densities reach high levels. These results indicate that plants have different abilities to influence their abundance by changing the structure of their soil communities, and that this is an important regulator of plant community structure.

Harrison K. A, Bardgett R D .

Influence of plant species and soil conditions on plant-soil feedback in mixed grassland communities

Journal of Ecology, 2010,98(2), 384-395.

DOI:10.1111/jec.2010.98.issue-2      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Neupane S, Goyer C, Zebarth B J , et al.

Soil bacterial communities exhibit systematic spatial variation with landform across a commercial potato field

Geoderma, 2019,335:112-122.

DOI:10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.08.016      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Yu L H, Wu S J, Peng Y S , et al.

Arabidopsis EDT1/HDG11 improves drought and salt tolerance in cotton and poplar and increases cotton yield in the field

Plant Biotechnology Journal, 2016,14(1):72-84.

DOI:10.1111/pbi.12358      URL     PMID:25879154      [本文引用: 1]

Drought and salinity are two major environmental factors limiting crop production worldwide. Improvement of drought and salt tolerance of crops with transgenic approach is an effective strategy to meet the demand of the ever-growing world population. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a homeodomain-START transcription factor, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, tobacco, tall fescue and rice. Here we report that AtHDG11 also confers drought and salt tolerance in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and woody plant poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.). Our results showed that both the transgenic cotton and poplar exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress with well-developed root system. In the leaves of the transgenic cotton plants, proline content, soluble sugar content and activities of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes were significantly increased after drought and salt stress compared with wild type. Leaf stomatal density was significantly reduced, whereas stomatal and leaf epidermal cell size were significantly increased in both the transgenic cotton and poplar plants. More importantly, the transgenic cotton showed significantly improved drought tolerance and better agronomic performance with higher cotton yield in the field both under normal and drought conditions. These results demonstrate that AtHDG11 is not only a promising candidate for crops improvement but also for woody plants.

Shen Z, Ruan Y, Chao X , et al.

Rhizosphere microbial community manipulated by 2 years of consecutive biofertilizer application associated with banana Fusarium wilt disease suppression

Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2015,51(5):553-562.

DOI:10.1007/s00374-015-1002-7      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Liu X, Zhang S, Jiang Q , et al.

Using community analysis to explore bacterial indica-tors for disease suppression of tobacco bacterial wilt

Scientific Reports, 2016,6:36773.

DOI:10.1038/srep36773      URL     PMID:27857159      [本文引用: 1]

Although bacterial communities play important roles in the suppression of pathogenic diseases and crop production, little is known about the bacterial communities associated with bacterial wilt. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, statistical analyses of microbial communities in disease-suppressive and disease-conducive soils from three districts during the vegetation period of tobacco showed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum, followed by Acidobacteria. Only samples from September were significantly correlated to disease factors. Fifteen indicators from taxa found in September (1 class, 2 orders, 3 families and 9 genera) were identified in the screen as being associated with disease suppression, and 10 of those were verified for potential disease suppression in March. Kaistobacter appeared to be the genus with the most potential for disease suppression. Elucidating microbially mediated natural disease suppression is fundamental to understanding microecosystem responses to sustainable farming and provides a possible approach for modeling disease-suppressive indicators. Here, using cluster analysis, MRPP testing, LEfSe and specific filters for a Venn diagram, we provide insight into identifying possible indicators of disease suppression of tobacco bacterial wilt.

Zhao S, Liu D, Ling N , et al.

Bio-organic fertilizer application significantly reduces the Fusarium oxysporum population and alters the composition of fungi communities of watermelon fusarium wilt rhizosphere soil

Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2014,50(5):765-774.

DOI:10.1007/s00374-014-0898-7      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Watermelon Fusarium wilt is one of the most severe soil-borne diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. In this study, the population of F. oxysporum was quickly monitored by real-time PCR and DNA array in watermelon Fusarium wilt infected soils treated with Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) at the beginning of nursery growth and/or at the beginning of transplanting. The fungal community composition was investigated by molecular cloning and DGGE techniques. The real-time PCR results showed the F. oxysporum population in the rhizosphere soil decreased from 8.56 x 10(4) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1) rhizosphere soil to 9.41 x 10(3) cfu g(-1) rhizosphere soil after BIO application and the DNA array detection signals of F. oxysporum population weakened. The difference between F. oxysporum abundance of BIO amended and not amended bulk soils was lower than 10(4) cfu g(-1) soil. DGGE profile indicated that BIO application changed the fungal community structure in the rhizosphere soils; the molecular cloning data revealed that consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stages not only decreased Ascomycota and increased Basidiomycota abundance in the rhizosphere soil but also caused the apperance of unique fungal group which were not found in the control. The beneficial fungi Chaetomium sp. Aspergillus penicillioides were found in the BIO amended treatment, while some harmful fungi such as F. oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium solani were only detected in the control. Data from this study indicated that BIO application can control watermelon Fusarium wilt by suppressing the population of F. oxysporum and changing the fungal community structure in the rhizosphere soils.

Qiu M H, Zhang R F, Xue C , et al.

Application of bio-organic fertilizer can control Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants by regulating microbial community of rhizosphere soil

Biology and Fertility of Soils, 2012,48(7), 807-816.

DOI:10.1007/s00374-012-0675-4      URL     [本文引用: 2]

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen, results in considerable yield losses for cucumber plants. A bio-organic fertilizer (BIO), which was a combination of manure composts with antagonistic microorganisms, and an organic fertilizer (OF) were evaluated for their efficiencies in controlling Fusarium wilt. Application of the BIO suppressed the disease incidence by 83% and reduced yield losses threefold compared with the application of OF. Analysis of microbial communities in rhizosphere soils by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed that more complex community structures were present in BIO than in OF treated soils. The dominant taxonomic phyla found in both samples were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria among bacteria and Ascomycota among fungi. Abundance of beneficial bacteria or fungi, such as Trichoderma, Hypoxylon, Tritirachium, Paenibacillus, Bacillus, Haliangium and Streptomyces, increased compared to the OF treatment, whereas the soil-borne pathogen, Fusarium, was markedly decreased. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the application of the BIO was a useful and effective approach to suppress Fusarium wilt and that the high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing was a suitable method for the characterization of microbial communities of rhizosphere soil of cucumber.

Bending G D, Turner M K, Rayns F , et al.

Microbial and biochemical soil quality indicators and their potential for differentiating areas under contrasting agricultural management regimes

Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2004,36(11):1785-1792.

DOI:10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.04.035      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Moulin A P, Buckley K E, Volkmar K .

Soil quality as affected by amendments in bean-potato rotations

Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 2011,91(4):533-542.

DOI:10.4141/CJSS10011      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Moulin, A. P., Buckley, K. E. and Volkmar, K. 2011. Soil quality as affected by amendments in pinto bean-potato rotations. Can. J. Soil Sci. 91: 533-542. The potential for adverse effects on soil quality and erosion in pinto bean-potato rotations is significant due to low levels of residue input to the soil following potatoes or beans, and the effect of tillage on soil structure, particularly in sandy-textured soils typical of the potato-growing area of Manitoba. Soil quality is reduced by low inputs of residue and carbon commensurate with an increase in the proportion of small and unstable aggregates susceptible to erosion. Furthermore N and P concentrations at the soil surface may be affected by various management options including fall cover crops, application of straw and the use of composted manure. In a study conducted at Carberry, MB, from 2000 to 2006, KCI-extractible NO(3)-N and Olsen P were determined in the fall prior to seeding in each year of the study. Water-soluble P, determined in the fall of 2005 for selected treatments, increased with application of compost. Soil organic C, total N and the proportion of erodible (<0.5-mm diameter) aggregates and stability of aggregates were measured in 2006 for treatments with fall-applied compost, cereal straw, and spring-applied anionic polyacrylamide (PAM). The proportion of erodible aggregates and aggregate stability were not consistently affected by treatment. Application of PAM did not affect stability of wet-sieved aggregates (1.3 to 2.0 mm), but decreased the proportion of small aggregates (<0.5 mm) in 2002. Soil C in the 0- to 5-cm depth increment increased with fall application of composted beef cattle manure. However, no effect was observed on the dry-sieved distribution of aggregates <0.5 mm in diameter. Soil quality, as indicated by an increase in soil organic C, can be improved by application of composted beef cattle manure, but levels of water-soluble P will increase, potentially increasing the risk of high concentrations of P in runoff. This research shows that the addition of compost and straw improves soil quality in terms of soil carbon and aggregate stability in bean-potato rotations. However, the proportion of erodible aggregates also increased, though not to levels that contribute significantly to soil erosion. Compost inputs must be monitored to reduce the potential for high concentrations and runoff of water-soluble P at the soil surface.

秦舒浩, 曹莉, 张俊莲 , .

轮作豆科植物对马铃薯连作田土壤速效养分及理化性质的影响

作物学报, 2014,40(8):1452-1458.

DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1006.2014.01452      URL     [本文引用: 1]

合理轮作天蓝苜蓿(Medicago lupulina L.)、陇东苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)和箭筈豌豆(Vicia sativa L.)3种豆科植物对马铃薯连作田土壤速效氮、速效磷及速效钾含量有不同程度的促进作用。对于马铃薯2年以上连作田,轮作3种豆科植物均能起到提高土壤氮素有效性的作用,速效氮含量最高提高476%,且可显著提高3年以上连作田速效磷含量,增幅最高可达207%。对于3~4年连作田,轮作天蓝苜蓿可提高土壤速效钾含量,其他连作年限及轮作箭筈豌豆和陇东苜蓿均没有提高土壤速效钾含量。轮作豆科植物后,不同连作年限马铃薯连作田土壤EC值均显著下降,与对照相比,土壤的EC值最大降低69.7%,说明实施马铃薯-豆科植物轮作对防止马铃薯连作田土壤盐渍化有显著效果。轮作豆科植物使连作田土壤脲酶、碱性磷酸酶和过氧化氢酶活性均显著提高。从第2年连作开始,轮作豆科植物对后茬马铃薯产量产生明显影响,第3~4年连作期间,轮作天蓝苜蓿和箭筈豌豆对后茬马铃薯增产效果较明显。

王丽红, 郭晓冬, 谭雪莲 .

不同轮作方式对马铃薯土壤酶活性及微生物数量的影响

干旱地区农业研究, 2016,34(5):109-113.

[本文引用: 1]

徐雪风, 李朝周, 张俊莲 .

轮作油葵对马铃薯生长发育及抗性生理指标的影响

土壤, 2017,49(1):83-89.

[本文引用: 1]

Li S, Wu F .

Diversity and co-occurrence patterns of soil bacterial and fungal communities in seven intercropping systems

Frontiers in Microbiology, 2018,9:1521.

DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01521      URL     PMID:30034385      [本文引用: 1]

Intercropping plays a vital role in greenhouse production, and affects soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial communities structure, but influences of intercropping on the relationship of microorganisms are reported in continuous cropping soil rarely. Here, we investigated the effects of seven intercropping systems [alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/cucumber, trifolium (Trifolium repens L.)/cucumber, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/cucumber, rye (Secale cereale L.)/cucumber, chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronrium L.)/cucumber, rape (Brassica campestris L.)/cucumber, mustard (Brassica juncea L.)/cucumber] on soil bacterial and fungal communities compared to the cucumber continuous cropping system in the greenhouse. The results showed that intercropping increased microbial OTU richness and fungal communities diversity, soil bacterial communities diversity was abundant in the trifolium-cucumber and mustard-cucumber systems. Nevertheless, there was no significant differences of microbial communities structure between intercropping and monoculture systems. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil microbial communities composition was indirectly influenced by soil properties. In addition, network analysis demonstrated that simple inter-relationships of fungal taxa were observed in the intercropping soil, and trifolium, wheat, and mustard intercropping systems had a complex connection between bacterial taxa. Taken together, trifolium and mustard as the intercrops significantly increased cucumber continuous cropping soil bacterial and fungal communities diversity. Moreover, intercropping strongly changed the relationships of microbial taxa, though did not shape notably soil microbial communities structure.

李越, 曹瑾, 汪春明 .

蚕豆间作栽培对连作马铃薯根际土壤微生物的影响

农业科学研究, 2017,38(2):8-13.

[本文引用: 1]

王娜, 陆姗姗, 马琨 , .

宁夏南部山区马铃薯不同间作模式对根际土壤细菌多样性的影响

干旱区资源与环境, 2016,30(12):193-198.

[本文引用: 1]

何进勤, 冯付军, 吴晓彦 .

间套作模式对宁南山区马铃薯农艺性状的影响

宁夏农林科技, 2015,56(3):1-3,7.

[本文引用: 1]

González-Chávez M C A, Aitkenhead-Peterson J A, Gentry T J , et al.

Soil microbial community,C,N,and P responses to long term tillage and crop rotation

Soil and Tillage Research, 2010,106(2), 285-293.

DOI:10.1016/j.still.2009.11.008      URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ling N, Zhang W, Tan S , et al.

Effect of the nursery application of bioorganic fertilizer on spatial distribution of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and its antagonistic bacterium in the rhizosphere of watermelon

Applied Soil Ecology, 2012,59(4):13-19.

DOI:10.1016/j.apsoil.2012.05.001      URL     [本文引用: 1]

宋尚成, 朱凤霞, 刘润进 .

秸秆生物反应堆对西瓜连作土壤微生物数量和土壤酶活性的影响

微生物学通报, 2010,37(5):696-700.

[本文引用: 1]

赵丽婷, 刘玉环, 秦超 , .

酵母生物肥对土壤理化性质和马铃薯经济效益的影响

蔬菜,2015(10):34-38.

[本文引用: 1]

沈宝云, 余斌, 王文 , .

腐植酸铵、有机肥、微生物肥配施在克服甘肃干旱地区马铃薯连作障碍上的应用研究

中国土壤与肥料,2011(2):68-70.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

通过不同施肥水平的有机肥、腐植酸铵、微生物肥配施,改良甘肃干旱地区马铃薯连作障碍,试图筛选出有机肥、腐植酸铵、微生物肥的最佳配施水平.结果表明,有机肥、腐植酸铵、微生物肥配施能显著提高甘肃干旱地区马铃薯产量,可有效地克服其连作障碍,当有机肥、腐植酸铵、微生物肥施用量分别为12 000、1 125、75 kg/hm2时,可获得最大经济效益.

罗飞, 赵汉雨, 刘存祥 , .

几种常见土壤杀菌方法述评

安徽农学通报, 2010, 16(9): 50, 120.

[本文引用: 1]

杨桂丽, 童娟, 张丽 .

熏蒸灭菌对连作马铃薯生长发育及土壤微生物的影响

农业科学研究, 2012,33(1):36-40,56.

[本文引用: 1]

郭成瑾, 张丽荣, 沈瑞清 .

土壤消毒对马铃薯连作田土壤微生物数量的影响

江苏农业科学, 2014,42(14):368-370.

[本文引用: 1]

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