作物杂志,2020, 第3期: 169–176 doi: 10.16035/j.issn.1001-7283.2020.03.026

• 生理生化·植物营养·栽培耕作 • 上一篇    下一篇

半干旱区不同种植模式对马铃薯淀粉形成及产量的影响

陈娟1, 贺锦红1, 刘吉利2,3, 康建宏1, 吴娜1()   

  1. 1宁夏大学农学院,750021,宁夏银川
    2宁夏大学环境工程研究院,750021,宁夏银川
    3宁夏旱区资源评价与环境调控重点实验室,750021,宁夏银川
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-24 修回日期:2019-12-18 出版日期:2020-06-15 发布日期:2020-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 吴娜 E-mail:nawu2000@163.com
  • 作者简介:陈娟,主要从事作物高产栽培与耕作技术研究,E-mail: 2291956436@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    宁夏自然科学基金(2019AAC03063);国家自然科学基金(31660376)

Effect of Different Planting Patterns on Starch Formation and Yield of Potato in Semi-Arid Area

Chen Juan1, He Jinhong1, Liu Jili2,3, Kang Jianhong1, Wu Na1()   

  1. 1School of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, Ningxia, China
    2Institute of Environmental Engineering, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, Ningxia, China
    3Ningxia Key Laboratory of Resource Assessment and Environment Regulation in Arid Region, Yinchuan 750021, Ningxia, China
  • Received:2019-10-24 Revised:2019-12-18 Online:2020-06-15 Published:2020-06-10
  • Contact: Na Wu E-mail:nawu2000@163.com

摘要:

为探明不同种植模式对宁夏南部山区马铃薯淀粉形成及产量的影响,采用单因素随机区组设计,设置露地平作(A1)、露地单垄单行(A2)、露地单垄双行(A3)、半膜单垄双行(A4)和全膜单垄双行(A5)5个处理,研究了不同种植模式对宁夏南部山区马铃薯淀粉形成酶活性、淀粉含量和产量的影响。结果表明,淀粉积累后期A5处理的总淀粉含量较A1、A2、A3和A4处理分别提高34.5%、26.1%、18.5%和12.7%。淀粉积累过程中,淀粉形成酶ADPG-PPase、UDPG-PPase、SSS、SBE和GBSS活性对马铃薯支链淀粉、直链淀粉和总淀粉的积累有直接或间接影响,与马铃薯块茎总淀粉含量的相关系数分别为0.691、0.264、0.514、0.629和0.130。不同种植方式对马铃薯产量有明显影响;A5处理产量最高,A4处理次之,分别较A1处理增产83.8%和62.9%。在宁夏半干旱区,全膜单垄双行种植模式在马铃薯块茎淀粉积累、淀粉形成酶活性提高和增产方面有明显优势。

关键词: 马铃薯, 种植模式, 淀粉形成酶, 产量

Abstract:

A field experiment with single factor randomized block design was conducted to determine the effect of different planting patterns on the starch formation and yield of potato in semi-arid area. The starch synthetase activity, starch content and yield of potato under conventional flat planting (A1), single-row planting on ridge without plastic film mulching (A2), double-row planting on ridge without plastic film mulching (A3), double-row planting on ridge with semi-plastic film mulching (A4) and double-row planting on ridge with full plastic film mulching (A5) were compared and analyzed to explore the suitable planting pattern in the Southern Mountainous Region of Ningxia. The results showed that the total starch content in late starch accumulation period under A5, compared with those under A1, A2, A3 and A4, were increased by 34.5%, 26.1%, 18.5% and 12.7%, respectively. During the starch accumulation process, the five starch-forming enzymes have directly or indirectly influenced the amylopectin, amylose and total starch accumulation in potato. The correlation coefficients between total starch content and the activities of ADPG-PPase, UDPG-PPase, SSS, SBE, GBSS were 0.691, 0.264, 0.514, 0.629, 0.130, respectively. In this study, it was observed that different planting patterns had significant effects on potato yield. The yield under A5 treatment is placed the first and A4 treatment ranked the second whereas, the yield increased by 83.8% and 62.9% respectively compared with A1 treatment. Therefore, double-row planting on ridge with full plastic film mulching can effectively improve starch formation, increase the starch forming enzyme activities and potato yield, which is a suitable planting pattern for potato production in semi-arid area of Ningxia.

Key words: Potato, Planting pattern, Starch-forming enzyme, Yield

图1

2018年试验地降雨量及平均温度分布"

图2

种植模式对马铃薯块茎总淀粉含量的影响 不同小写字母表示不同处理在0.05水平差异显著。下同"

图3

种植模式对马铃薯块茎支链淀粉和直链淀粉含量的影响"

图4

种植模式对马铃薯块茎中ADPG-PPase和UDPG-PPase活性的影响"

图5

种植模式对马铃薯块茎SSS活性的影响"

图6

种植模式对马铃薯GBSS活性的影响"

图7

种植模式对马铃薯块茎SBE活性的影响"

表1

马铃薯块茎淀粉含量与淀粉形成关键酶活性的通径分析"

变量
Variable
相关系数
Correlation coefficient
直接通径系数
Direct path coefficient
间接通径系数Indirect path coefficient
X1 X2 X3 X4 X5
总淀粉含量Total starch content R2=0.795 剩余系数=0.453
X1 0.514 0.547 -0.306 0.006 1.055 -0.788
X2 0.130 -0.385 0.435 0.005 0.731 -0.655
X3 0.629 0.007 0.503 -0.252 1.112 -0.741
X4 0.691 1.146 0.503 -0.246 0.007 -0.719
X5 0.264 -0.880 0.490 -0.287 0.006 0.936
支链淀粉含量Amylopectin content R2=0.782 剩余系数=0.467
X1 0.491 0.169 -0.178 0.360 0.953 -0.813
X2 0.151 -0.224 0.135 0.257 0.660 -0.676
X3 0.641 0.392 0.155 -0.147 1.005 -0.764
X4 0.686 1.035 0.156 -0.143 0.380 -0.742
X5 0.252 -0.908 0.151 -0.167 0.330 0.846
直链淀粉含量Amylose content R2=0.928 剩余系数=0.268
X1 0.928 0.635 0.206 -0.372 0.164 0.295
X2 0.859 0.259 0.505 -0.265 0.114 0.246
X3 0.799 -0.405 0.584 0.170 0.173 0.278
X4 0.805 0.178 0.584 0.165 -0.393 0.270
X5 0.896 0.330 0.568 0.193 -0.340 0.146

表2

种植模式对马铃薯产量及其产量构成因素的影响"

处理
Treatment
每穴薯块数
Tuber number
per hole
每穴大薯数
Number of big
tuber per hole
大薯重
Big tuber
weight (g)
每穴中薯数
Number of tuber
per hole
中薯重
Medium tuber
weight (g)
商品薯率
Commercial
tuber rate (%)
产量
Yield
(kg/hm2)
A1