## 不同向日葵品种对镉积累差异性的田间研究

1 河南省土壤重金属污染监测与修复重点实验室,459000,河南济源

2 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所环境修复中心,100101,北京

3 北京市勘察设计研究院有限公司,100038,北京

4 河北省环境科学研究院,050051,河北石家庄

5 北京瑞美德环境修复有限公司,100015,北京

## Field Study on Variety Difference of Cadmium Accumulation in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

Jiao Yuzi1, Guo Junmei2, Yang Junxing2, Li Houen3, Xu Tiebing4, Ye Yong5, Zhou Xiaoyong5

1 Key Laboratory for Monitor and Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soils of Henan Province, Jiyuan 459000, Henan, China

2 Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

3 Beijing Engineering Research Center of Environmental Geotechnology, Beijing 100038, China

4 Heibei Provincial Academy of Environmental Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei, China

5 Beijing Remediation Environmental Restoration Co., Ltd., Beijing 100015, China

 基金资助: 河南省土壤重金属污染监测与修复重点实验室资助开放基金.  2017206国家重点研发计划项目.  2018YFD0800600国家自然科学基金.  41771509,41771510,41201312,41271478

Received: 2018-04-11   Revised: 2018-08-28   Online: 2018-12-15

Abstract

A field experiment was carried out to study the variety difference of growth response and Cd accumulation in 28 cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in typical Cd-contaminated farmland soil with 2.22mg/kg Cd in Northern China, which aimed to screen sunflower cultivars with high accumulation of Cd. The results showed that significant differences were observed among 28 cultivars of sunflower, with the shoot biomasses ranged from 1 101.38kg/hm 2-12 511.13kg/hm 2, the shoot Cd concentrations ranged from 1.68mg/kg-19.25mg/kg, the bioconcentration factor ranged from 0.76-8.67, and the uptake amount of Cd ranged from 4.17g/hm 2-114.20g/hm 2.According to the cluster analysis of Cd concentration in sunflower, 28 cultivars of sunflower were divided into 3 categories in which the G3, G1, Y1, G8, G12, G4 and G6 cultivars were defined as high accumulation capacity cultivars. The analysis of Cd uptake in shoot of sunflower suggested that Y3, G24 and G3 cultivars could accumulated more than 100g/hm 2 Cd in shoot, which were suitable for applying in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil.

Keywords： Cadmium ; Sunflower ; Cultivar ; Phytoremediation

Jiao Yuzi, Guo Junmei, Yang Junxing, Li Houen, Xu Tiebing, Ye Yong, Zhou Xiaoyong. Field Study on Variety Difference of Cadmium Accumulation in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)[J]. Crops, 2018, 34(6): 89-95 doi:10.16035/j.issn.1001-7283.2018.06.014

### 1.4 数据统计分析

BCF=$\frac{C_{shoot}}{C_{soil}}$

### 图1

Fig.1   The shoot biomass of different sunflower varieties

### 2.2 不同向日葵品种地上部Cd含量

Table 1  The shoot Cd content of different sunflower varieties mg/kg

G1G2G3G4G5G6G7G8G9G10G11G12G13G14G15G16G17G18G19G20G21G22G23G24Y1Y2Y3Y4

Squaring stage
5.586.766.313.492.204.114.303.723.963.721.156.133.762.494.013.286.292.541.863.153.055.341.352.193.253.854.134.61

Maturation stage
17.9610.5019.2513.9512.3513.8211.1715.1810.759.379.1414.4612.489.519.198.629.476.106.2210.398.229.821.698.8015.718.8811.8212.53

### 图2

Fig.2   The Cd bioconcentration factor of different sunflower varieties

### 图3

Fig.3   Cluster analysis of Cd accumulation capacity of different sunflower varieties

### 图4

Fig.4   Cd extraction amount in aboveground parts of different sunflower varieties

## 4 结论

（1）向日葵具有修复Cd污染土壤的潜力,在Cd含量为2.22mg/kg的污染土壤上,其地上部生物量、Cd含量、Cd富集系数和Cd提取量最高分别可以达到12 511.13kg/hm2、19.25mg/kg、8.67和114.20g/hm2。然而28个不同向日葵品种表现出了不同的生长响应,其地上部Cd含量也表现出较大差异。综合分析Y3、G24和G3品种是修复Cd污染农田的较合适品种。

（2）聚类分析结果表明,28个向日葵品种可分为3类,G3、G1、Y1、G8、G12、G4和G6等为高富集Cd型（地上部Cd含量>13mg/kg,BCF>6）,G23为非富集Cd型（地上部Cd含量<2mg/kg、BCF<1）,其他为低富集Cd型向日葵品种。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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Accumulation of arsenic and nutrients by castor bean plants grown on an As-enriched nutrient solution

Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2009,168(1):479-483.

Phytoextraction is a remediation technique that consists in using plants to remove contaminants from soils and water. This study evaluated arsenic (As) accumulation in Castor bean ( Ricinus communis cv. Guarany) grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its phytoextraction ability. Castor bean plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution amended with increasing doses of As (0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 5000 μg L 611) in a completely randomized design with four replications. Shoot and roots dry matter production as well as arsenic and nutrient tissue concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that increasing As concentration in nutrient solution caused a decrease in shoot and root biomass but did not result in severe toxicity symptoms in castor bean growing under a range of As concentration from 0 to 5000 μg L 611. The As doses tested did not affect the accumulation of nutrients by castor bean. Although castor bean did not pose characteristics of a plant suitable for commercial phytoextraction, it could be useful for revegetation of As-contaminated areas while providing an additional income by oil production.

<P><FONT face=Verdana>【目的】苋菜在中国的分布很广，品种资源丰富。通过筛选耐镉苋菜品种，发掘镉污染土壤植物修复资源。【方法】采用溶液培养方法，从来自不同生态区域的23个苋菜品种（Amaranthus mangostanus L.）中筛选出具有镉超富集能力的品种;采用赤红壤、黄棕壤、菜园土进行盆栽试验，研究苋菜在土壤Cd浓度分别为5、10、25 mg?kg-1时，对镉污染土壤的修复潜力。【结果】在溶液Cd浓度3 mg?L-1条件下培养，苋菜品种天星米地上部镉含量高达260 mg?kg-1。在土壤Cd浓度 25 mg?kg-1条件下，苋菜天星米地上部镉浓度高达212 mg?kg-1，富集系数达到8.5，地上部净化率达3.8%，各镉处理水平总生物量以及地上部生物量均未显著降低。【结论】苋菜天星米基本具备了镉超富集植物的特征，可用于镉污染土壤的生物修复。<BR></FONT></P>

Zhuang P, Yang Q, Wang H , et al.

Phytoextraction of heavy metals by eight plant species in the field. Water,Air,

and Soil Pollution, 2007,184(1-4):235-242.

Phytoremediation is an in situ, cost-effective potential strategy for cleanup of sites contaminated with trace metals. Selection of plant materials is an important factor for successful field phytoremediation. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction abilities of six high biomass plants ( Vertiveria zizanioides, Dianthus chinensis , Rumex K-1 ( Rumex upatientia × R. timschmicus ), Rumex crispus , and two populations of Rumex acetosa ) in comparison to metal hyperaccumulators ( Viola baoshanensis , Sedum alfredii ). The paddy fields used in the experiment were contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cd. Our results indicated that V. baoshanensis accumulated 2802mg kg 611 Cd and S. alfredii accumulated 6,27902mg kg 611 Zn (dry weight) in shoots, with bioconcentration factors up to 4.8 and 6.3, respectively. The resulting total extractions of V. baoshanensis and S. alfredii were 0.1702kg ha 611 for Cd and 32.702kg ha 611 for Zn, respectively, with one harvest without any treatment. The phytoextraction rates of V. baoshanensis and S. alfredii for Cd and Zn were 0.88 and 1.15%, respectively. Among the high biomass plants, R. crispus extracted Zn and Cd of 26.8 and 0.1602kg ha 611 , respectively, with one harvest without any treatment, so it could be a candidate species for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from soil. No plants were proved to have the ability to phytoextract Pb with high efficiency.

EDTA、柠檬酸对向日葵吸收重金属Cd-Ni的影响

// 全国农业环境科学学术研讨会. 2007.

Liphadzi M S, Kirkham M B, Mankin K R , et al.

EDTA-assisted heavy-metal uptake by poplar and sunflower grown at a long-term sewage-sludge farm

Plant & Soil, 2003,257(1):171-182.

Little information is available concerning the efficacy of chelates applied to biosolids (sewage-sludge)-treated soil for heavy-metal removal. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the availability to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Marsh. × P. nigra L.) seedlings, of non-essential (Cd, Ni, Pb) and essential heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in field soil injected with biosolids since 1976 and treated with ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in 2001. Sunflower was grown at two densities, 20000 and 60000 plants/ha, and poplar at 10000 plants/ha. The tetrasodium salt of EDTA was applied at rates of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g EDTA salt per kg surface (25-cm depth) soil. The EDTA did not affect uptake by poplar of the three non-essential (Cd, Ni, Pb) and four essential (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) heavy metals. For sunflower, the 1.0 g/kg rate of chelate addition resulted in maximal removal of the three non-essential heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb). Uptake of the essential heavy metals by sunflower was little affected by the EDTA. At the 20 000 plants/ha density, leaves of sunflower grown with 1.0 g EDTA Na4·2H2O per kg soil accumulated more Cd, Ni, and Pb than leaves of sunflower grown without the EDTA salt. At this density, concentrations of Cd in leaves of sunflower without EDTA and with 1.0 g/kg EDTA salt were 2.2 and 6.5 μg/g, respectively; for Ni, they were 6.7 and 19.2 μg/g, respectively; and for Pb, they were 15.6 and 46.9 μg/g, respectively. At the 60000 plants/ha density, stems of sunflower grown with 1.0 g EDTA Na4·2H2O per kg soil accumulated more Cd, Ni, and Pb than stems of sunflower grown without the EDTA salt. At this density, concentrations of Cd in stems of sunflower without EDTA and with 1.0 g/kg EDTA salt were 0.6 and 4.6 μg/g, respectively; for Ni, they were 1.7 and 17.6 μg/g, respectively; and for Pb, they were 5.2 and 42.8 μg/g, respectively. Removal of the non-essential heavy metals by sunflower was greater at the higher plant density (60000 plants/ha) compared to the lower one (20000 plants/ha).

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