作物杂志,2018, 第6期: 17–21 doi: 10.16035/j.issn.1001-7283.2018.06.003

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玉米子粒脱水研究与机械粒收对策

明博,王克如,谢瑞芝,侯鹏,李少昆   

  1. 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所/农业农村部作物生理生态重点实验室,100081,北京
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-23 修回日期:2018-09-14 出版日期:2018-12-15 发布日期:2018-12-06
  • 作者简介:明博,助理研究员,主要研究方向为玉米栽培与信息化技术
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300110);国家玉米产业技术体系项目(CARS-02-25);中国农业科学院农业科技创新工程

Researches on Maize Grain Dehydration and Countermeasures for Mechanical Grain Harvesting

Ming Bo,Wang Keru,Xie Ruizhi,Hou Peng,Li Shaokun   

  1. Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2018-05-23 Revised:2018-09-14 Online:2018-12-15 Published:2018-12-06

摘要:

我国玉米产区跨度大、生态类型和种植模式多样、品种繁多,多数地区收获时子粒含水率偏高,影响玉米机械粒收质量,是限制我国玉米机械粒收技术推广的关键因素。根据国内外有关玉米子粒脱水过程的研究文献,认为:玉米子粒脱水包括生理脱水和自然脱水两个阶段,各阶段脱水速率的主控影响因素不同,使得区域间、品种间和年际间子粒脱水特征差异显著;当前影响玉米子粒脱水动态的遗传基础及生理生态机制尚不明确,难以对机械粒收技术措施和扶持政策的制定形成支撑。结合玉米生产实际情况,提出了推动我国玉米机械粒收工作发展的建议:加强早熟、子粒脱水快、耐破碎品种的选育;在黄淮海、东北、西北及西南四大玉米产区开展玉米子粒脱水特征及其影响因素的生态联合试验,明确影响区域子粒脱水动态的主控生态因素和生理生态机制,寻找区域机械粒收技术突破口,以协调子粒成熟与降低含水率的关系为核心,充分利用区域热量资源,因地制宜,综合运用粒收品种选育、品种熟期配置、收获期决策、栽培技术配套以及制定扶持政策等手段,推进机械粒收技术快速发展。

关键词: 玉米, 机械粒收, 区域差异, 子粒脱水, 生理生态机制

Abstract:

Maize production areas in China have large spans and diverse ecological types, and most of the grain moisture content at harvest stage are on the high level, affecting the quality of grain mechanical harvesting, which is the critical factor that limiting the technical promotion and application of mechanical grain harvesting in China. According to the current studies, the grain dehydration process includes two stages physiological dehydration and natural dehydration. The main controlling factors of dehydration rate in each stage are different leading to a significant difference in dehydration characteristics of maize grain among inter-regional, inter-species and inter-annual. It is difficult to support the formulation of technical measures and supportive policies because of the unclear physiological and ecological mechanisms affected by the dynamic characteristics of maize grain dehydration. This study proposes that the ecological networking experiment on dehydration characteristics of maize grain and their influencing factors, will be conducted in the four major maize producing regions including Huang-huai-hai plain, northeast, northwest and southwest maize region in China. The objective of this experiment is to identify the main controlling ecological factors and physiological ecological mechanism affecting grain dehydration dynamic process. With the theory as the guidance, the coordinated relationship between the grain maturity and the reduction of moisture content as the focus, the regional heat resources are fully utilized to achieve the stable yield and grain mechanical harvesting. By measures such as adjustments to local conditions, integrated use of grain variety breeding, variety maturity period configuration, harvest decision, a complete set of cultivation techniques and supporting policies can be administered tolook for a breakthrough of regional grain mechanical harvesting technology.

Key words: Maize, Mechanical grain harvesting, Regional disparity, Grain dehydration, Eco-physiological mechanism

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